Other official historic names of Nea Alikarnassos are: Halicarnassus, Halikarnassos, Alikarnassos and Bodrum.
Very close to Alikarnassos and in the wider region of Caria there are ancient artifacts and tombs of Mycenaeans (1500BC-1200BC). This is evidence of one of the origins of Nea Alikarnassos citizens. Another proven origin is from a Dorian colony. In ancient Greece, Alikarnassos appears as a member of The Dorian Hexapolis that included Kos, Cnidus, Lindos, kameiros and Ialysos. However, Alikarnassos was expelled from this union, when one of it’s citizens Agasicles did not dedicated his trophy from the Triopian games to Triopian Apollo. Later, in the 5th century, Alikarnassos was under the commands of Artemisia I of Caria. She is famous for her participation as a naval commander in the battle of Salamis.
Between 404 BC to 358 BC, Caria (including Alikarnassos) was part of the Persian Empire and the King was Hecatomnus who established the Hecatomnid Dynasty. He had three sons: Mausolus, Idrieus, Pixodarus and two daughters: Artemisia and Ada. Artemisia married her brother Mausolus and Ada married her brother Idrieus.
Mausolus made Alikarnassos capital of Caria and developed a lot the city with his wife Artemisia II. He died in 353 BC and Artemisia decided to construct a magnificent tomb in memory of her husband, King Mausolus and for herself. This tomb is widely known as Mausoleum, one of the 7 Wonders of The Ancient World.
Idrieus the brother of Artemisia II of Caria succeeded her. In 344 BC, Idrieus died and he was succeeded by his wife and sister Ada. In 340 BC Pixodamus succeeded Ada. He died in 350 BC and he was succeeded by his son in law Orontobates with the approval of King Darius III of Persia. This was the end of The Persian occupation of Nea Alikarnassos.
It is remarkable that King Alexander The Great entered Caria in 334 BC and passed the goverment of the region to Artemisia. She in turn adopted King Alexander in order to ensure the continue of Caria Kingdom. However, the Persians who lost the war destructed many constructions of Alikarnassos and the wider area of Caria. Alikarnassos never recovered form the destruction.
The current town of Nea Aliarnassos started to be built mainly to the east, southeast of the center of Heraklion city after the end of Greek-Turkish war and the Minor Asia Catastrophe in 1922 by The Greek goverment and the refugees.
In present time, Nea Alikarnassos is a well constructed suburb of Heraklion city in Crete, Greece. A unique characteristic of this place is that it hosts the Heraklion International Airport, The Industrial area of Heraklion and it is located very close to Heraklion port and the center of Heraklion city. The majority of it’s constructions are built on rocky ground, making it also a safer place from earthquakes. Other unique characteristics are that the majority of Nea Alikarnassos residents are descendants of a World Wonder (Mausoleum), Minor Asia and Ancient Greece ( Mycenaens, Dorians, Carians, Macedonians). Finally, the residents of Nea Alikarnassos were mixed through marriages with many Cretans from various places of Crete after the establishment of the town in 1922. So, multiculture and convergence of civilizations is another unigue characteristic of Nea Alikarnassos residents.